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Ebuild HOWTO (Англ.)

1. The Portage tree
2. Ebuild scripts
3. File system Locations
4. The Portage scripts and utilities
5. Package Dependencies
6. Testing and deploying

Ссылка на оригинал: http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&chap=1

С версии: 1.4

1. The Portage tree

1.1. Introduction

The Portage tree is typically found at /usr/portage and is organized in a hierarchical structure consisting of category directories, followed by specific package directories. Here's an example; you can find the util-linux-2.11y.ebuild file in the /usr/portage/sys-apps/util-linux directory. There may be several other versions of util-linux ebuilds alongside util-linux-2.11y.ebuild. This is because all ebuilds for a particular package (regardless of version), share the same mycat/mypkg directory in /usr/portage.

1.2. Checking Out the Portage Tree from CVS

If you are unfamiliar with the CVS system, please read the CVS Tutorial for more information.

The Portage tree can be found in the gentoo-x86 module of the Gentoo Linux tree. To check out the module (about 350 megabytes) you would first set up CVS via the above guide, then check out the gentoo-x86 module.

1.3. What (not) to put in the Portage tree

Before writing a new ebuild, check bugs.gentoo.org to see if an ebuild has already been written for the package, but has not yet been added to the Portage tree. Go to bugs.gentoo.org, choose query and select Advanced Search; as product select Gentoo Linux, as component select ebuilds. In the search field put the name of the ebuild and as status select NEW, ASSIGNED, REOPENED and RESOLVED (RESOLVED is important), then submit the query. For you lazy people, click here.

In general, the Portage tree should only be used for storing .ebuild files, as well as any relatively small companion files, such as patches or sample configuration files. These types of files should be placed in the /usr/portage/mycat/mypkg/files directory to keep the main mycat/mypkg directory uncluttered. Exceptions to this rule are for larger patch files (we recommend this for patches above 20KB) which should be put onto the Gentoo mirrors so that people do not waste excessive amounts of bandwidth and hard drive space. Also, you should not add binary (non-ASCII) files to the Portage CVS tree. If you need to do this in another CVS tree, for example, if you need to add a small PNG graphic for whatever reason, be sure to add it to CVS by using the -kb option, like so:

Листинг 1. Adding binary files to CVS

# cvs add -kb myphoto.png

The -kb option tells CVS that myphoto.png is a binary file and should be treated specially. For example, merging the differences between two different versions of this file should not be allowed to happen, for obvious reasons. Also, speaking of merging changes, any patches you add to Portage should generally not be compressed. This will allow CVS to merge changes and correctly inform developers of conflicts.

Remember, the packages that you commit must be ready out of the box for end users when committed as stable. Make sure that you have a good set of default settings that will satisfy the majority of systems and users that will use your package. If your package is broken, and you are not sure how to get it to work, check some other distributions that have done their own versions of the package. You can check Mandriva or Debian or Fedora for some examples.

When committing to CVS, all developers should use repoman commit instead of cvs commit to submit their ebuilds. Before committing, please run repoman full to make sure you didn't forget something.

1.4. CVS Commit Policy

  • Always run repoman scan before you commit.

  • Please run repoman full before you commit.

  • Always test that package.mask is okay by doing emerge --pretend mypkg before you commit and check that it doesn't contain any conflicts.

  • Always update the ChangeLog before you commit.

  • Always commit the updated package.mask before the updated package, in case conflicts occur while you commit package.mask.

  • Always do atomic commits; if you commit a package with a new license, or that is masked, then first commit the revised package.mask and/or license, then commit the ebuild, ChangeLog, patches and metadata.xml all in one go to avoid breaking users' installations.

1.5. The files Directory

As noted earlier, under each package subdirectory is a files/ directory. Any patches, configuration files, or other ancillary files your package might require should be added to this directory; any files bigger than 20KB-or-so should go to the mirrors to lower the amount of (unneeded) files our users have to download. You may want to consider naming patches you create yourself just to get your package to build with a version-specific name, such as mypkg-1.0-gentoo.diff, or more simply, 1.0-gentoo.diff. Also note that the gentoo extension informs people that this patch was created by us, the Gentoo Linux developers, rather than having been grabbed from a mailing list or somewhere else. Again, you should not compress these patches because CVS does not play well with binary files.

Consider prefixing or suffixing (such as mypkg-1.0) every file you put into the files/ directory, so that the files used for each individual version on an ebuild are distinguishable from one another, and so that the changes between different revisions are visible. This is generally a really good idea :). You may want to use a different suffix if you wish to convey more meaning with the patch name.

If you have many files that should go into the files/ directory, consider creating subdirectories such as files/1.0/ and putting the relevant files in the appropriate subdirectory. If you use this method, you do not need to add version information to the names of the files, which is often more convenient.

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